The pupil is a black hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina. Certain drugs cause constriction of the pupils, such as opioids. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pupil&oldid=987509644, Wikipedia pages semi-protected from banned users, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 November 2020, at 14:33. Some have slits or ovals which may be oriented vertically, as in crocodiles, vipers, cats and foxes, or horizontally as in some rays, flying frogs, mongooses and artiodactyls such as sheep, elk, red deer, reindeer and hippopotamus, as well as the domestic horse. Your eye is a slightly asymmetrical globe, about an inch in diameter. The size of the opening is governed by the muscles of the iris, which rapidly constrict the pupil when exposed to bright light and expand (dilate) the pupil in dim light. [1] It appears black because light rays entering the pupil are either absorbed by the tissues inside the eye directly, or absorbed after diffuse reflections within the eye that mostly miss exiting the narrow pupil. Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Wisconsin at Madison. Goats, toads and octopus pupils tend to be horizontal and rectangular with rounded corners.

Some causes include: Horner’s syndrome can also occur if you’ve had an injury to the carotid arteries (blood vessels in the neck that carry blood and oxygen to the face and brain) or the jugular vein (vein in the neck that carries blood from the brain and face back to the heart). Chances are what you’ll notice first are changes in your vision. The pupillary aperture also narrows when focusing on close objects and dilates for more distant viewing. Yes — but let’s take a sec to discuss it before you start making assumptions about every set of…, Here is a detailed review of 8 nutrients that can help maintain proper eye function, protect your eyes from damage and fight the negative effects of…, The eye is a complex and delicate mechanism. [18] An alternative explanation is that a partially constricted circular pupil shades the peripheral zones of the lens which would lead to poorly focused images at relevant wavelengths. Thanks to Bonnie Taylor and Palabra Publications for permission to post. At its maximum contraction, the adult pupil may be less than 1 mm (0.04 inch) in diameter, and it may increase up to 10 times to its maximum diameter. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! [24], The pupil is the central opening of the iris on the inside of the eye, which normally appears black. The function of the pupil is to regulate the amount of light admitted into the eye, to optimize the depth of focus and to mitigate ocular aberrations. Horner’s syndrome is a condition that occurs when nerve pathways that run from the brain to the face become injured. Parasympathetic nerve fibres from the third (oculomotor) cranial nerve innervate the muscle that causes constriction of the pupil, whereas sympathetic nerve fibres control dilation. Eye Doctor Dallas This light is then focused on the retina, which is the layer of light sensitive cells at the back of the eye. In a surprising number of unrelated languages, the etymological meaning of the term for pupil is "little person". Pupil, in the anatomy of the eye, the opening within the iris through which light passes before reaching the lens and being focused onto the retina.

pupil m (plural pupillen, diminutive pupilletje n) (chiefly sports) minor, generally a prepubescent child over the age of 5; favoured student, protégé

[10] The simple act of recollection can dilate the size of the pupil,[11] however when the brain is required to process at a rate above its maximum capacity, the pupils contract. The pupil is the circular opening in the middle of the iris. The eye itself has only one part that changes in a manner that is visible to others and that is the pupil.

Some drugs that affect pupil size include: Parts of the brain that help us feel and decode emotion as well as mentally focus can make pupils widen. According to research in the Emergency Medicine Journal, the pupil is typically smaller than normal. Some of these other factors include: A concussion is a brain injury that results from the brain smacking against the hard skull during a fall, a hit to the head, or a fast impact involving the whole body.

Once the pupils have adjusted to the light by becoming smaller, we no longer need to squint. For most of us, vision - the act of being able to see an object - is the beginning of understanding. [citation needed] The term “pupil” was created by Gerard of Cremona.[2]. The sensory pathway (rod or cone, bipolar, ganglion) is linked with its counterpart in the other eye by a partial crossover of each eye's fibers. Those who suffer from sensitivity to strong light either have pupils that are slow to react to bright lights and reduce their size or have had their retinas scarred by a sudden burst of bright light that the pupils could not control. No other sense of perception comes close to eyesight, in terms of affecting our lives, and our ability to perform in the world we live in. Updates? Dallas Lasik While your two pupils will usually be roughly the same size, pupil size overall can fluctuate.

While it can be a natural occurrence, affecting about 20 percent of people, it can also signal a nerve problem or infection. This is known as the pupillary light reflex. It opens and closes to control the amount of light that is allowed to enter the eye.

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