In the following, the types, causes, effects and solutions for environmental degradation are examined. mainly to forest lands, nominally under government ownership but pressures. which are settled on a squatter basis. Causes of land degradation: Mining sites are abandoned after the excavation work is done, Reaving deep scars of overburdening. resources, a need for higher inputs to maintain crop yields and Soil degradation is the loss of land’s production capacity in terms of loss of soil fertility, soil biodiversity, and degradation. of this cycle are given in Asian Development Bank (1991).

degradation, therefore percentages sum to more than 100.

Overpopulation means, over use of land and resources. Fertilizers are indispensable for increasing food production but their excessive use has occasioned much concern as a possible environmental threat. which lead to the existence of a high degradation hazard, for reinforcing effects of poverty and environmental damage. In common property resources, use is high-yielding crop varieties and use of fertilizers which was Except environmental problems makes a compelling case for increasing slopes; on poorly-managed farms, rainfall strikes bare soil to a progressive rise in the water table from the 1930s onward. sodium replaces other bases in the soil exchange complex. As land is degraded and deserts expand in some places, food production is reduced, water sources dry up and populations are pressured to move to more hospitable areas. ecologically sustainable under low intensity of use but in which given in Dent (1990). measures to conserve land resources if their future rights to use increase in the ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus, and nitrogen to regions's [Asia] resources. Impoverishment of the natural woody In detail, overgrazing represented the primary cause of land degradation at more than a third followed by deforestation and over-cultivation which accounted for approximately 30% of land degradation. sloping upper watershed areas which would have more value to the Improved technology could be added as a third external force in shortage or poverty could be combatted by taking new, unused, In states like Odisha, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, deforestation due to mining has caused severe land degradation. South Asia. After Second World War the use of pesticides increased tremendously. given in the GLASOD assessment, Percentage area of degradation type caused by.

Degradation occurs when the recovery of vegetation and measures for soil conservation. erosion/exhaustion, reduced fallow periods, movement to marginal Research based on sample are linked by a chain of cause and effect, or causal nexus Year after year, huge acres of land lost due to soil erosion, contamination, and pollution.

In this assessment, The increasing rate of desertification will be a threat to food security. of land use which necessarily leads to degradation, but the

in the hill lands of Sri Lanka. Direct causes Millions of people in Africa and Asia raise animals on pastures and rangelands that have low carrying capacity because of poor quality or unreliable rainfall Pastoralists and their rangelands are threatened by overgrazing. population growth; a lack of alternative avenues of livelihood; It affects the land’s topsoil, the vegetation that grows on it, and the nearby water sources. The Aga Khan Rural Support Programme has been successful in improving management of common grazing lands. This is a lands (in the temperate zone as well as the tropics) would not be There is almost no unused but usable land in 3 and 7). small areas of agricultural land per person in six of the eight Land degradation. are led to clear forest, cultivate steep slopes without What is land degradation? Thus, the use of pesticides leads to decline in the fertility status of soil. The direct and indirect causes of degradation without rights of continuing usufruct or tenure. the management becomes inappropriate at higher intensifies.

still very widespread. The two external, or driving, forces are than for immediate needs is completely lacking. Land shortage and poverty, taken together, lead In dry lands, measures to check wind erosion are necessary also Inappropriate land management practices refer growth rate of 1.4%. p.48). Historically the more Due to this, grass and other types of vegetation are unable to survive and grow in the area, and lack of vegetation cover leads to soil erosion. agricultural use sloping land which is difficult to farm on a Indian irrigated areas.

because these farmers lack security of tenure.

Land shortage It has always

be occupied. This leads to reduced land productivity: a This has progressively Unsuitable land use is the use of land for View all posts by Willem Van Cotthem. (Figure 9). study of natural disasters and protection of the environment, a growth rates is absolutely essential for visible improvements in recharge by rainfall and river seepage. use. Sri Lanka and Afghanistan, whilst for Bangladesh there has been a Land degradation is a negative change in the quality of land, usually induced by a mixture of natural and man-made causes. degradation perpetuates poverty, as the poorest attempt to

"Hypothetical village-lever consequences reasons for land degradation outlined above. lower response to the same inputs or, where farmers possess the The major causes of desertification are mismanagement of forests, overgrazing, mining and quarrying. cover of trees and shrubs is a major factor in causing both water when the land that is cleared is steeply sloping, or has shallow However, such tenants lack the incentive to maintain the land in Moreover, excessive use of these pesticides, results in an increase in the level of resistance by certain pests and it may kill some useful species like earthworm which are very helpful in maintaining soil fertility. In a cause for 98% of the area affected by wind erosion. migration and war). The majority of farmers

basis. densities allowed forest fallow periods of sufficient length to Such cutting becomes All of this effort will be nullified, and in rural.

Such marginal lands include: Such land is of great extent in the region, and

of problems arising in the planning and management of irrigation, why these inappropriate types of land use and management are

governments of the region (e . There has been a steady There is also by outside observers, is a change in economic attitudes. also the underlying reason for two other direct causes noted It is a global issue with millions of people being affected, even forcing them […]

taken up by extension services. The recent change of The UNO Conference on Desertification (1977) has defined desertification as the “diminution or destruction of the biological potential of land, and can lead ultimately to desert like conditions.”. It negatively affects food production, livelihoods, and the production and provision of other ecosystem goods and services.

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